Seams of coal lie near the base, some of them exceeding 20 ft. in thickness, but in this case layers of shaly coal are included. It must be borne in mind that the signification now attached to the word coal is different from that which formerly obtained when wood was the only fuel in general use. The convenience also with which the energy of waterfalls can be converted into electric energy has led to the introduction of chemical industries into countries and districts where, owing to the absence of coal, they were previously unknown. Coal appears to have been first discovered in the neighbourhood of Bronkhorst Spruit between the Wilge and Olifants rivers, where it was so near the surface that farmers dug it up for their own use. Up Next. The surrounding country abounds in coal, iron ore, oil, clay, stone and timber, for which the city is a distributing centre. (5) There is plenty of coal in this area. Among later additions were gunmounting stores, boiler shop, boat sheds, canteen, coal stores, &c., together with a double dock 750 ft. 2. In 1615 all patents for glass-making were revoked and a new patent issued for making glass with coal as fuel, in the names of Mansel, Zouch, Thelwall, Kellaway and Percival. deep. Coal and limestone are found near the city. In the neighbourhood there are numerous large collieries, and coal is shipped from wharves on the riverside, vessels of 300 or 400 tons being able to reach the quays at high tide. The mineral wealth of Carinthia is great, and consists in lead, iron, zinc and coal. A thoroughly charred, and extinguished or still ignited, fragment from wood or other combustible substance; charcoal. In the case of coal, salt, iron ore, pyrite and other homogeneous minerals, boring may give all the information required. The surrounding country has good farming land and large coal mines. They substituted gas for coal. Coal is found in the province of Hualgayoc at the southern extremity of the department, which is also one of the rich silver-mining districts of Peru. Timber, pig-iron and iron ore are the leading imports, and coal, produce and iron the chief exports. Among the principal varieties are those which contain carbolic acid and other ingredients of coal tar, salicylic acid, petroleum, borax, camphor, iodine, mercurial salts, sulphur and tannin. Its principal imports are coffee (of which it is the greatest continental market), tea, sugar, spices, rice, wine (especially from Bordeaux), lard (from Chicago), cereals, sago, dried fruits, herrings, wax (from Morocco and Mozambique), tobacco, hemp, cotton (which of late years shows a large increase), wool, skins, leather, oils, dyewoods, indigo, nitrates, phosphates and coal. 1. a government decision to subsidize coal mining. It is the largest peanut market in the world, is in a great truck-gardening region, and makes large shipments of cotton (822,930 bales in 1905), oysters, coal, fertilizers, lumber, grain, fruits, wine, vegetables, fish and live stock. Stoked it while the coal dwindled. Coal is found in the Thayetmyo, Upper Chindwin and Shwebo districts, and in the Shan States; it also occurs in Mergui, but the deposits which have been so far discovered have been either of inferior quality or too far from their market to be worked to advantage. Calcination in reverberatory furnaces and a subsequent smelting in the same type of furnace with the addition of about 3% of coal, lime, soda and fluorspar, has been adopted for treating the Bolivian ores, which generally contain the sulphides of bismuth, copper, iron, antimony, lead and a little silver. The development of manufacturing in Delaware has not been so extensive as its favourable situation relative to the other states, the facilities for water and railway transportation, and the proximity of the coal and iron fields of Pennsylvania, would seem to warrant. ANTHRACENE (from the Greek civOpa, coal), C 14 H 10, a hydrocarbon obtained from the fraction of the coal-tar distillate boiling between 270° and 400° C. This high boiling fraction is allowed to stand for some days, when it partially solidifies. Coal, fireclay and blue and red brick clay are dug in the neighbourhood; and there are also market gardens. 3 a : a black or brownish-black solid combustible substance formed by the partial … Brown coal is obtained at the entrance of Shag valley, 40 m. The Carpathian system is richer in metallic ores than any other mountain system of Europe, and contains large quantities of gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, coal, petroleum, salt, zinc, &c., besides a great variety of useful mineral. The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. Coal then meant the carbonaceous residue obtained in the destructive distillation of wood, or what is known as charcoal, and the name collier was applied indifferently to both coal-miners and charcoal-burners. All Rights Reserved. Of the surplus 1,000,000 was allocated to the improvement of posts, telegraphs and telephones; 1,000,000 to public works (~72o,ooo for harbour improvement and 280,000 for internal navigation); 200,000 to the navy (~I32,ooo for a second dry dock at Taranto and 68,000 for coal purchase); and 200,000 as a nucleus of a fund for the purchase of valuable works of art which are in danger of exportation. Of far greater volume than the foreign commerce is the domestic trade in coal, iron, lumber, &c., largely by way of the Great Lakes. The Eastern railway has works at Romilly, and there are iron works at Clairvaux and wire-drawing works at Plaines; but owing to the absence of coal and iron mines, metal working is of small importance. The city is in one of the most productive coal regions of the state, has a large jobbing trade, and is an important centre for the insurance business. The port has a small trade in coal, live-stock and farm produce. Railway development in West Virginia has been due largely to the exploitation of the coal and lumber resources of the state. The vicinity abounds in coal, but is principally agricultural, and Clinton's chief interest is in trade with it. The principal mining product is mercury, extracted at Idria, while iron and copper ore, zinc and coal are also found. The principal exports are Portland stone, bricks and tiles and provisions, and the imports are coal, timber, garden and dairy produce and wine. They sometimes cause a serious dislocation of railway and other traffic. The first coal was produced from June 1911, with full production reached before the outbreak of the First World War. Gowen (1836-1889), president of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, sent James McParlan, an Irish Catholic and a Pinkerton detective (who some thirty years later attracted attention in the investigation of the assassination of Governor Steunenberg of Idaho), to the mining region in 1873; he joined the order, lived among the "Molly Maguires" for more than two years, and even became secretary of the Shenandoah division, one of the most notoriously criminal lodges of the order. The export of coal in that year was 74,000 tons, and copper ore 937 tons (vide supra, § Minerals). The whole district is rich in coal, the mining of which is extensively carried on. Coal, textiles and iron and steel goods figure prominently amongst the imports, and emery, leather, lemons, sponges, flour, valonia and iron ore amongst the exports. Mieres is the chief town of a mountainous, fertile and well-wooded region in which coal, iron, and copper are extensively mined and sulphur and cinnabar are obtained in smaller quantities. 39. It puts through 9-12 tons of ore in twenty-four hours, reducing the percentage of sulphur to 2-4%, and requires four to six men and about 2 tons of coal. Besides, most of the products out there in the market have coal or coal by-products as components. Vessels go to Porman to land coke and coal, and to load iron ore and lead. Devoting himself to the economic side of geology in various parts of North America, he was enabled to bring out in 1861 A Practical Treatise on Coal, Petroleum and other Distilled Oils. Mining is only of slight importance, small quantities of coal and iron-ore being extracted in the Alpine foothill region; graphite is found near Miihldorf. Examples of ton of coal in a sentence, how to use it. It is a species of cannel coal, somewhat similar to the Boghead mineral of Scotland, but yielding a much larger percentage of volatile hydro-carbon than the Scottish mineral. Another word for coal. Thus, supposing that moo lb of coal were required to work a single vacuum pan, evaporating, say, 6000 lb of water in a given time, then 500 lb of coal would be required for a double-effect apparatus to do the same work, 333 lb for a triple effect, 250 for a quadruple effect, and 200 lb for a quintuple effect. This is the microscopic structure of an ordinary piece of coal. ...a pledge to privatise the rail and coal industries. In the best days of the so-called Jamaica Trains in Demerara, three-quarters of a ton of coal in addition to the megass was burned per ton of sugar made, and with this for many years planters were content, because they pointed to the fact that in the central factories, then working in Martinique and Guadeloupe, with charcoal filters and triple-effect evaporation, 750 kilos of coal in addition to the megass were consumed to make woo kilos of sugar. Bright, glance or pitch coal is another brilliant variety, brittle, and breaking into regular fragments of a black colour and pitchy lustre. A quantity of it is really brushwood, used for the manufacture of charcoal and for fuel, coal being little used except for manufacturing purposes. Examples of other mining methods will be found under Coal. Coal has not been found, but peat may be exploited under favourable economic conditions. These small furnaces are frequently arranged for direct coal firing, but regenerative gasfired furnaces are also employed. (4) Gas-fired electricity is cheaper than coal. They serve the trade of Lake Pontchartrain and the Florida parishes, the lumber, coal, fish, oyster and truck trade of New Orleans, and to some extent are the highway of a miscellaneous coasting trade. Building materials, brandy and coal are among the imports. The exports of Aube consist of timber, cereals, agricultural products, hosiery, wine, dressed pork, &c.; its imports include wool and raw cotton, coal and machinery, especially looms. The Coal Measures repose upon the Millstone Grit; the largest area of these rocks lies on the east, where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and Nottingham. Geologically, spiders date from the Carboniferous Period, Arthrolycosa and others from the coal beds of Europe and North America being closely allied to the existing genus Liphistius. Shenhua Watermark is a subsidiary of Shenhua Goup, the largest coal supplier in … Pipeclay and china clay, from Kingsteighton, are shipped for the Staffordshire potteries, while coal and general goods are imported. coal in sentences. Fossil scorpions of the modern type are found in the Coal Measures. MOLLY MAGUIRES, an Irish American secret society which maintained numerous branches in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania, U.S.A., from 1854 to 1877, and perhaps later. - The price per ton… Minerals remained for the most part unworked, though the profitable coal fields and oil wells in Ferghana were used when disturbances in Trans-Caspia cut Turkestan off from the Baku oil, on which it relies entirely for its industrial life. A few experimental results are set forth in Table XX., from which it will be seen that with a relatively low rate of combustion, a rate which denotes very light service, namely lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, the efficiency of the boiler is %, which is as good a result as can be obtained with the best class of stationary boiler or marine boiler even when using economizers. Iron, coal, copper and manganese are mined. Brown coal, or lignite, occurs principally in Victoria. The city's chief interest is in the tobacco industry; it has also considerable trade in other agricultural products and in coal; and its manufactures include carriages and wagons, bricks, lime, flour and dressed lumber. Near Lithgow extensive deposits of limonite, or clay-band ore, are interbedded with coal. 1897); Hoefer, Taschenbuch fiir Bergmanner (Leoben, 1897); Hughes, Coal Mining (4th ed., London, 1900); M. He had organized in 1826 a society to develop the coal and iron of the Aveyron, and the name of Decazeville was given in 1829 to the principal centre of the industry. The year 1890 was one of great depression following the exhaustion of the surface ore, but the provision of better machinery and cheaper coal led to a revival in 1891. STYROLENE, C 6 H 5 CH:CH 2, also known as phenylethylene or vinylbenzene, an aromatic hydrocarbon found to the extent of 1 to 4% in storax; it also occurs with crude xylene in coal tar fractions. Peat is largely used as fuel, coal being obtained only at a cost of £3 a ton. The country has a great wealth of minerals, silver having been found, and copper, lead, iron, coal and rock-salt being wrought with profit. While washing out the sands of the North Saskatchewan for gold is still somewhat resorted to, the only real mining in Alberta is that for coal. It is the carrier of a heavy tonnage of coal to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. The minerals chiefly produced in the Urals are iron, coal, gold, platinum, copper, salt and precious stones. The most important imports are minerals, including coal and metals (both in pig and wrought); silks, raw, spun and woven; stone, potters earths, earthenware and glass; corn, flour and farinaceous products; cotton, raw, spun and woven; and live stock. There are vast deposits of coal and clay under and about the city. ‘a coal fire’ ‘Thus, an industrially valuable coal seam requires special conditions to accumulate.’ ‘Surface mining began in the United States in the late eighteenth century, when farmers and others dug coal from exposed coal seams on hillsides and stream banks.’ ...65.5 million tonnes of coal. Small vessels may coal at Naos, an island in the Gulf of Panama, which is owned by the United States. 20 examples of simple sentences of “seam of coal“ In its three chief mineral products, earthoil, coal and gold, Burma offers a fair field for enterprise and nothing more. Coal sentence examples. In 1896 the total output of coal was 216,106 tons (valued at £108,053 at the pit's mouth), in 1908 it had increased to 1,669,774 tons (valued at the pit's mouth at £737,169). Coal is also found and several salt mines are worked. Fragments of coal, or soil stained black with coal, will be found near the outcrop tif coal beds. Iron has also been produced in Derbyshire from an early date, and coal mines were worked at Norton and Alfreton in the beginning of the 14th century. The finest agricultural land in the United States is near the lake, and there is an immense trade in all grains, fruits, livestock and lumber, and in products such as flour, pork, hides, leather goods, furniture, &c. Rich lead and copper mines abound, as also salt, iron and coal. In some English works coal is still employed for direct heating with various forms of mechanical stokers. The claims measure 100 X200 metres (about 5 acres) in the case of mineral veins or lodes, and 200 X 200 metres (about 10 acres) for coal, alluvial gold and other deposits. A furnace is served by three men, working in eight-hour shifts, and requires about 2 tons of coal, which corresponds to about 110 gallons reduced oil, air being used as atomizer. The mineral resources include silver, gold, copper, lead, tin, iron and coal, and mining is the chief industry. Holden developed the use of liquid fuel on the Great Eastern railway to a point beyond the experimental stage, and used it instead of coal with the engines running the heavy express traffic of the line, its continued use depending merely upon the relative market price of coal and oil. Iron ore is found in the state in the coal hills (especially Laurel Hills and Beaver Lick Mountain), but the deposits have not been worked on a large scale. Standing in the centre of a great coal-bearing basin, Sydney is naturally the seat of numerous manufactures, to the prosperity of which the abundance and cheapness of coal has been highly conducive. 4- coal tar can further be refined into kerosene. Coal has been worked near Noumea, and kaolin is found in places. Learn the definition of the word "coal-seam" and how to use coal-seam in a sentence. Beds of this age, consisting of sandstones and coal, are found on the northern coast of Disco Island and the southern side of the Noursoak Peninsula, the beds in the former locality, " the Kome strata " of Nordenskiold, being the oldest. Of the Coal Measures above these, if they occur, we know nothing at present. The society grew in strength during the Civil War, when the increased demand for coal caused an influx of miners, many of them lawless characters, into the coal-fields, and in1862-1863it opposed enlistments in the Federal Army and roughly treated some of the enlisting officers. Coal definition: Coal is a hard black substance that is extracted from the ground and burned as fuel. Freight consists principally of coal shipped from Charlotte, Great and Little Sodus bays and Oswego to Canadian ports in the lakes, and to ports on the St Lawrence river; of grain shipped through the Welland canal to the St Lawrence; and of lumber from Canadian ports. The mines yield iron, coal, quicksilver and salt. If the available water-power of Italy, already very considerable, be harnessed, converted into electric power (which is already being done in some districts), and further increased by reafforestation, the effect upon the industries of Italy will be incalculable, and the importation of coal will be very materially diminished. Birmingham, situated in an immensely rich iron, coal and limestone region, is the principal manufacturing centre in the state, and the most important centre for the production and manufacture of iron in the southern states. The Coal Measures become narrower in the south, until, owing to the eastward projection of the highlands, the Lower Palaeozoic rocks reach the coast. Very little coal was produced in the state until the Civil War, when, in 1862 and again in 1863, 30,000 short tons were obtained for the relief of the Confederate government, an amount which up to 1905, when the yield was only 1557 short tons (falling off from 7000 short tons in 1904), had not since been equalled; in 1906, in 1907 and in 1908 no coal was mined in the state. 49. includes receipts from commercial and industrial undertakings belonging to the stateThese are the Hejaz railway, £T152,000; the Dolma-Bagtche gas-works, £T59,130; technical school, £T8536; the Tigris and Euphrates steamships, £T62,513; and mines (Heraclea coal and other), £T120,710; forming a combined total of £T402,889. Coal is mined in the vicinity; the city has a large trade with the surrounding agricultural district (whose distinctive product is beans); the Michigan Central railway has car and machine shops here; and the city has many manufacturing establishments. Black coal has been discovered in Victoria, and about 250,000 tons are now being raised. be recovered by adding phlogiston, and experiment showed that this could generally be effected by the action of coal or carbon, which was therefore regarded as practically pure phlogiston; the other constituent being regarded as an acid. It dates from the completion of the railway to the coal mines of Naricual and Capiricual nearly 1 2 m. beyond Barcelona, and was created for the shipment of coal. ...traditional industries such as coal mining. In some mines dust seems to have but little effect on the health of the miners; indeed it is even claimed by some that coal dust decreases the mortality from phthisis. They are also preserved in basins on the western plateau, as shown by brown coal deposits passed through in the Lake Phillipson bore. In this process the purified ore is mixed with about one-fifth of its weight of a noncaking coal or anthracite smalls, the mixture being moistened to prevent it from being blown off by the draught, and is then fused on the sole of a reverberatory furnace for five or six hours. It was coal country, or had been, as much of the depressed countryside screamed of poverty. The mouth of the Fox was early visited by French explorers, and Father Hennepin is said to have discovered here in 1680 the first deposit of coal found in America. 77. Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal at several collieries in the vicinity; and at Fountain Springs, 1 m. south-east, is a state hospital for injured persons of the Anthracite Coal Region of Pennsylvania, opened in 1883. Lincoln is situated in a productive grain region, and has valuable coal mines. v. 1. burn to charcoal 2. supply with coal 3. take in coal. Let E represent the pounds of coal burnt per hour in the fire-box of a locomotive, and let c be the calorific value in B.Th.U. In coal-mines we have to deal with " fire-damp " or marsh gas, and with inflammable coal dust, which form explosive mixtures with air and frequently lead to disastrous explosions resulting in great loss of life. Like a canary in a coal mine, the biochip will detect hazards, including biochemical threats. occasionally occurs in the pure form, but more frequently in a state of intimate intermixture with clay ("lead earth," Bleierde), limestone, iron oxides, &c. (as in the ores of Nevada and Colorado), and some times also with coal ("black lead ore"). Imports are principally coal, iron and timber. Learn the definition of coal and how to use it in a sentence. Large quantities of coal and tea are exported. The chief exports are stone for road-making, butter, eggs and vegetables; the chief imports are coal, timber, superphosphates and wine from Algeria. Coal is also found in large quantities near Kelung and sulphur springs exist in the north of the island. Ironstone is not extensively wrought, but, on account of the abundant supply of coal, large quantities are imported for smelting purposes. When the substance operated upon is of uncertain composition, as, for example, coal, wood, coal-tar, &c., the term destructive distillation is employed. Quality and hot burning her hand like it was a market town in 1695, but with a restricted! The town is, industrially, remarkable for its paper mills and mines of France coal! Lumber, and while not so heavy as that of the modern type are found for. These industries, and has valuable coal mines, entries and headings, bords walls!, mineral waters and cattle for the supply of coal, tea and wine the latter being much tougher the... 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Main line to Belfort crosses it is frequently impregnated with cinnabar is situated in a wheat-growing region, which. Centres, and iron trebled during the period 1880-1900, amounting in 1900 6,600,000.